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  • Online Disinformation in Europe - A Study on Ethical Standards, Involved Political Interests and Policy Recommendations

  • 02 Feb 22 Posted under: Éducation et recherche , Société de l'information
  • As online disinformation constitutes a crucial problem for democratic societies, it becomes clear that the phenomenon is highly complex and multidimensional. The study mapps the involved actors and the overall landscape and presents a policy framework, providing a useful tool for researchers and policy makers.

    The study, commissioned by the Left in the European Parliament, primarily focused on the state of journalistic authorities and standards and the analysis of disinformation in France, Germany, Greece, Italy and Spain. Regarding the topics, it has drawn particular attention to the spread of disinformation on Covid-19, migration, and climate change.

    Click here to read the full study (website of The Left in the European Parliament, formerly GUE/NGL).



    Online Disinformation in Europe. A Study on Ethical Standards, Involved Political Interests and Policy Recommendations.
    The Left in the European Parliament
    173 pages

    Table of Contents


    Disinformation background
    Objectives of the study
    Key Findings
    Outline of the study

    Ethical standards in journalism

    Journalistic codes of ethical conduct - a summary of main principies
    Implications and challenges of compliance with ethical conduct

    Political interests served

    General disinformations topics
    Political interests & disinformation in France
    Political interests & disinformation in Germany
    Political interests & disinformation in Greece
    Political interests & disinformation in Italy
    Political interests & disinformation in Spain

    Policy recommendations

    The disinformation ecosystem
    Proposed policy recommendation frameworks for combating disinformation in Europe and beyond
    Analysis and synthesis of policy recommendations for combating disinformation
    Our recommendations


    Annexes I - Codes of Conduct - Europe
    Annexes II - Codes of Conduct - National

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