On December 2nd elections were held in Andalusia, the southern region of Spain, and the result marks a turning point in the electoral cycle that starts now in Spain.
The decline in support for the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (the PSOE has governed in Andalusia since 1982, the first autonomous elections of the young Spanish democracy), the high abstention and the emergence of a new far-right force with 10.97% of the votes are new elements with which will have to faced in the upcoming municipal, regional and European elections.
Whenever the rise of the extreme right in Europe has emerged, the Spanish exception was pointed out since a right-wing party in Spain with sufficient strength that could be considered viable at the political-electoral level never existed. The extreme right was integrated into the Popular Party, which integrates various conservative families ranging from the classical Christian Democrat tradition to those nostalgic of the Franco dictatorial regime. Since December 2nd, after the Andalusian elections, this is no longer the case. The first electoral appointment of the new cycle that opens now and that will be going on in the next year announced in municipal, autonomic, state and European level, has seen a forceful entrance of Vox, a party of the extreme right which is comparable to the French National Front and that has managed to obtain 10.97% of the votes (in 2015 it had 0.45%) and 12 parliamentarians.
Five political forces have obtained parliamentary representation in Andalusia:
Although the emergence of the extreme right may be the most striking element at the European level, there are several factors that mark the beginning of a new political cycle in Spain and will imply a challenge on short notice of the action that must be taken by the progressives:
Vox also enters inside the global trend of the rise of the far-right forces sponsored by Steve Bannon that combines an anti-pro-European discourse with a defense of the nationalist capitalist model. For now, Vox's presence among popular sectors is marginal, but that does not mean that its future strategy does not rule out contesting those areas that have been affected the most by the economic crisis.
However, the result of Adelante Andalucía is not negligible in political terms for a force that occupies the space of the radical left in Andalusia. 17 deputies and 16.18% of the votes are a good starting point to face a new electoral cycle marked by a growth of the conservative bloc with the presence of a new actor occupying the space of the far right.
The situation is a legitimate source of concern for the left in Spain. However, it is not the moment of hasty conclusions of a change of phase in the Spanish political scene. Next May there will be municipal, European and some autonomous community elections in Spain. The possible electoral advance for the Government of Spain is on the agenda for all political parties. The crisis of the regime is on-going in Spain but it depends on how the different actors of the political arena react in one direction or the other.
 Cinco Días, El vuelco electoral en Andalucía deja la Junta al alcance de la derecha, 3 Dec. 2018;